I finally found out who the "Captain Marvel" is in English football (soccer). It's Bryan Robson, the longest-serving captain of the famed Manchester United team. He also represented England 90 times, captaining the team in 65 matches. He played from 1973 - 1996.
He later moved into management, heading Middlesbrough, Bradford City, West Bromwich Albion, Sheffield United, Manchester United, and the Thailand national team.
He is one of the all-time greats of the game, an immortal with many goals scored and several championships, but I have not been able to find any information as to why "Captain Marvel" was the nickname given to him.Perhaps because he was such a good player and long running captain, the most popular name in England to give to a heroic captain is "Marvel," and there it is.
It also seems that the title "Captain Marvel" is also given to other footballers who are given the captain's armband and perform exceptionally, including such folks as David Beckham and Cristiano Ronaldo.